Home > Archives > 尾注



尾注 1 Ann Gibbons, ‘Food for Thought: Did the First Cooked Meals Help Fuel the Dramatic Evolutionary Expansion of the Human Brain?’, Science 316:5831 (2007), 1558-1560. 2 Robin Dunber, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998). 3 Michael L. Wilson and Richard W. Wrangham, ‘Intergroup Relations in Chimpanzees’, Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (2003), 363-392; M. McFarland Symington, ‘Fission-Fusion Social Organization in Ateles and Pan’, International Journal of Primatology, 11:1 (1990), 49; Colin A. Chapman and Lauren J. Chapman, ‘Determinants of Groups Size in Primates: The Importance of Travel Costs’, in On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, ed. Sue Boinsky and Paul A. Garber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 26. 4 Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language, 69-79; Leslie C. Aiello and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language’, Current Anthropology 34:2 (1993), 189. For criticism of this approach see: Christopher McCarthy et al., ‘Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Network Size’, Human Organization 60:1 (2001), 32; R. A. Hill and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Social Network Size in Humans’, Human Nature 14:1 (2003), 65. 5 Yvette Taborin, ‘Shells of the French Aurignacian and Perigordian’, in Before Lascaux: The Complete Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, ed. Heidi Knecht, Anne Pike-Tay and Randall White (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993), 211-28. 6 G.R. Summerhayes, ‘Application of PIXE-PIGME to Archaeological Analysis of Changing Patterns of Obsidian Use in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea’, in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory, ed. Steven M. Shackley (New York: Plenum Press, 1998), 129-58. 7 Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá, Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality (New York: Harper, 2010); S. Beckerman and P. Valentine (eds.), Cultures of Multiple Fathers: The Theory and Practice of Partible Paternity in Lowland South America (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002). 8 Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 98-101; Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians (Sydney: Allen & Unwin , 2002), 15; William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies (Wentworth Falls, N.S.W.: Social Science Press, 1988), 52. 9 Fekri A. Hassan, Demographic Archaeology (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 196-99; Lewis Robert Binford, Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 143. 10 Brian Hare, The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think (Dutton: Penguin Group, 2013). 11 Christopher B. Ruff, Erik Trinkaus and Trenton W. Holliday, ‘Body Mass and Encephalization in Pleistocene Homo’, Nature 387 (1997), 173-176; M. Henneberg and M. Steyn, ‘Trends in Cranial Capacity and Cranial Index in Subsaharan Africa During the Holocene’, American Journal of Human Biology 5:4 (1993): 473-79; Drew H. Bailey and David C. Geary, ‘Hominid Brain Evolution: Testing Climatic, Ecological, and Social Competition Models’, Human Nature 20 (2009): 67-79; Daniel J. Wescott and Richard L. Jantz, ‘Assessing Craniofacial Secular Change in American Blacks and Whites Using Geometric Morphometry’, in Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology: Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, ed. Dennis E. Slice (New York: Plenum Publishers, 2005), 231-45. 12 Nicholas G. Blurton Jones et al., ‘Antiquity of Postreproductive Life: Are There Modern Impact on Hunter-Gatherer Postreproductive Life Spans?’, American Journal of Human Biology 14 (2002), 184-205. 13 Kim Hill and A. Magdalena Hurtado, Aché Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996), 164, 236. 14 Hill and Hurtado, Aché Life History, 78. 15 Vincenzo Formicola and Alexandra P. Buzhilova, ‘Double Child Burial from Sunghir (Russia): Pathology and Inferences for Upper Paleolithic Funerary Practices’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 124:3 (2004), 189-98; Giacomo Giacobini, ‘Richness and Diversity of Burial Rituals in the Upper Paleolithic’, Diogenes 54:2 (2007), 19-39. 16 I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’, World Archaology 35:1 (2003), 145-65; Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57-73. 17 James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea) and the Archeology of Early Modern Humans’, in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Katie Boyle (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 395-410; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘When Did Humans First Arrived in Grater Australia and Why Is It Important to Know?’, Evolutionary Anthropology, 6:4 (1998), 132-46; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research’, Journal of Radiological Science 31:6 (2004), 835-53; Jon M. Erlandson, ‘Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Voyaging, and the Pleistocene Colonization of the Americas’, in The first Americans: the Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. Nina G. Jablonski (San Francisco: University of California Press, 2002), 59-60, 63-64; Jon M. Erlandson and Torben C. Rick, ‘Archeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems’, Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010), 231-51; Atholl Anderson, ‘Slow Boats from China: Issues in the Prehistory of Indo-China Seafaring’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, 16 (2000), 13- 50; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Maritime Navigation in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic’, Earth and Planetary Sciences 328 (1999), 559-60; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Seafaring in the Pleistocene’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13:1 (2003), 41-66. 18 Timothy F. Flannery, The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples (Port Melbourne, Vic.: Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, Science 306:5693 (2004): 70–75; Bary W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’, Journal of Biogeography 31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction,’ Science 309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’, Science 292:5523 (2001), 1888–92. 19 Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’, Quaternary Science Reviews 25:21–22 (2006), 2692–2703; Barry W. Brooks et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct If Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent? Comments on ‘‘A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’’ by S. Wroe and J. Field’, Quaternary Science Reviews 26:3-4 (2007), 560-564; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:34 (2008), 12150-53. 20 John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction’, Science, 292:5523 (2001), 1893-96; O’Connel and Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul’, 400-1. 21 L.H. Keeley, ‘Proto-Agricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross- Cultural Survey’, in Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, ed. T. Douglas Price and Anne Birgitte Gebauer (Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press, 1995), 243– 72; R. Jones, ‘Firestick Farming’, Australian Natural History 16 (1969), 224- 28. 22 David J. Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 23 Paul L. Koch and Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate’, The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37 (2006), 215-50; Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, 70-5. 24 本地图主要参考: Peter Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies (Malden: Blackwell Pub., 2005). 25 Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 130-131; Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence,’ Evolution and Human Behavior 34 (2013), 29-34. 26 Katherine A. Spielmann, ‘A Review: Dietary Restriction on Hunter-Gatherer Women and the Implications for Fertility and Infant Mortality’, Human Ecology 17:3 (1989), 321-45. 并请参见:Bruce Winterhalder and Eric Alder Smith, ‘Analyzing Adaptive Strategies: Human Behavioral Ecology at Twenty Five’, Evolutionary Anthropology 9:2 (2000), 51-72. 27 Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins and Hector Perez-Brignoli (eds.), Infant and Child Mortality in the Past (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward Anthony Wrigley et al., English Population History from Family Reconstitution, 1580-1837 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295-96, 303. 28 Manfred Heun et al., ‘Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprints’, Science 278:5341 (1997), 1312-14. 29 Charles Patterson, Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust (New York: Lantern Books, 2002), 9-10; Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby (ed.), The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (London: Duckworth, 1969), 259. 30 Avi Pinkas (ed.), Farmyard Animals in Israel – Research, Humanism and Activity (Rishon Le-Ziyyon: The Association for Farmyard Animals, 2009 [Hebrew]), 169-199; “Milk Production – the Cow” [Hebrew], The Dairy Council, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.milk.org.il/cgiwebaxy/sal/sal.pl?lang=he&ID=645657_ milk&act=show&dbid=katavot&dat aid=cow.htm 31 Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969); E.C. Amoroso and P.A. Jewell, ‘The Exploitation of the Milk-Ejection Reflex by Primitive People’, in Man and Cattle: Proceedings of the Symposium on Domestication at the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24-26 May 1960, ed. A.E. Mourant and F.E. Zeuner (London: The Royal Anthropological Institute, 1963), 129-34. 32 Johannes Nicolaisen, Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg (Copenhagen: National Museum, 1963), 63. 33 Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006), 636; “Historical Estimates of World Population”, U.S. Census Bureau, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html. 34 Robert B. Mark, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002), 24. 35 Raymond Westbrook, ‘Old Babylonian Period’, in A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law, vol. 1, ed. Raymond Westbrook (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 361- 430; Martha T. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 2nd ed. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 71-142; M. E. J. Richardson, Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary (London: T & T Clark International, 2000). 36 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 76. 37 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 121. 38 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 122-23. 39 Roth, Law Collections, 133-34. 40 Constance Brittaine Bouchard, Strong of Body, Brave and Noble: Chivalry and Society in Medieval France (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998), 99; Mary Martin McLaughlin, ‘Survivors and Surrogates: Children and Parents from the Ninth to Thirteenth Centuries’, in Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household and Children, ed. Carol Neel (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 81 n. 81; Lise E. Hull, Britain’s Medieval Castles (Westport: Praeger, 2006), 144. 41 Andrew Robinson, The Story of Writing (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 63; Hans J. Nissen, Peter Damerow and Robert K. Englung, Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East (Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 36. 42 Marcia and Robert Ascher, Mathematics of the Incas-Code of the Quipu (New York: Dover Publications, 1981). 43 Gary Urton. Signs of the Inka Khipu (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003); Galen Brokaw. A History of the Khipu (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010). 44 Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 222. 45 Sheldon Pollock, ‘Axialism and Empire’, in Axial Civilizations and World History, ed. Johann P. Arnason, S. N. Eisenstadt and Bj.rn Wittrock (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 397-451. 46 Harold M. Tanner, China: A History (Indianapolis: Hackett, Pub. Co., 2009), 34. 47 Ramesh Chandra, Identity and Genesis of Caste System in India (Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2005); Michael Bamshad et al., ‘Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Population’, Genome Research 11 (2001): 904-1004; Susan Bayly, Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). 48 Houston, First Writing, 196. 49 The Secretary-General, United Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on the In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women, delivered to the General Assembly, U.N. Doc. A/16/122/Add.1 (July 6, 2006), 89. 50 Sue Blundell, Women in Ancient Greece (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), 113-29, 132-33. 51 Francisco López de Gómara, Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, vol. 1, ed. D. Joaquin Ramirez Caba.es (Mexico City: Editorial Pedro Robredo, 1943), 106. 52 Andrew M. Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, Economic History Review 20:1 (1967), 11-12; Jasim Alubudi, Repertorio Bibliográfico del Islam (Madrid: Vision Libros, 2003), 194. 53 Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, 17-18. 54 David Graeber, Debt: The First 5000 Years (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Melville House, 2011). 55 Glyn Davies, A History of Money: from Ancient Times to the Present Day (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1994), 15. 56 Szymon Laks, Music of Another World, trans. Chester A. Kisiel (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1989), 88-89. 奥斯维辛集中营的“市场”仅限于部分阶级的囚犯,而且在不同时期的差异非常大。 57 Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money (New York: The Penguin Press, 2008), 4. 58 关于麦元的信息,我参考了一本未出版的博士论文:Refael Benvenisti, Economic Institutions of Ancient Assyrian Trade in the Twentieth to Eighteenth Centuries BC (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 2011). 并请参见:Norman Yoffee, ‘The Economy of Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. J. M. Sasson (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 1387-99; R. K. Englund, ‘Proto-Cuneiform Account-Books and Journals’, in Creating Economic Order: Record-keeping, Standardization, and the Development of Accounting in the Ancient Near East, ed. Michael Hudson and Cornelia Wunsch (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2004), 21-46; Marvin A. Powell, ‘A Contribution to the History of Money in Mesopotamia prior to the Invention of Coinage’, in Festschrift Lubor Matou., ed. B. Hru.ka and G. Komoróczy (Budapest: E.tv.s Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1978), 211-43; Marvin A. Powell, ‘Money in Mesopotamia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 39:3 (1996), 224-42; John F. Robertson, ‘The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Mesopotamian Temples’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 443-500; M. Silver, ‘Modern Ancients’, in Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, ed. R. Rollinger and U. Christoph (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), 65-87; Daniel C. Snell, ‘Methods of Exchange and Coinage in Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 1487-97. 59 Nahum Megged, The Aztecs (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1999 [Hebrew]), 103. 60 Tacitus, Agricola, ch. 30 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), pp. 220-21. 61 A. Fienup-Riordan, The Nelson Island Eskimo: Social Structure and Ritual Distribution (Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1983), p. 10. 62 Yuri Pines, ‘Nation States, Globalization and a United Empire – the Chinese Experience (third to fifth centuries BC)’, Historia 15 (1995), 54 [Hebrew]. 63 Alexander Yakobson, ‘Us and Them: Empire, Memory and Identity in Claudius Speech on Bringing Gauls into the Roman Senate’, in On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Doron Mendels (Oxford: Peter Land, 2007), 23-24. 64 W.H.C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 2008), 536-37. 65 Robert Jean Knecht, The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610 (London: Fontana Press, 1996), 424. 66 Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde fuer Mittelschulen -Fuenfter Teil. Klasse 5 fuer Jungen (Halle: Hermann Schroedel Verlag, 1942), 152-57. 67 Susan Blackmore, The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). 68 David Christian, Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 344-45; Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), 636; ‘Historical Estimates of World Population’, U.S. Census Bureau, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html. 69 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 261. 70 “Gross Domestic Product 2009”, The World Bank, Data and Statistics, accessed December 10, 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf 71 Christian, Maps of Time, 141. 72 当代最大的货轮能够承载大约10万吨的货物。在1470年,全球舰队船队加起来,承载量也不超过32万吨。到了1570年,总承载量已达到73万吨。(Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 97). 73 全球规模最大的银行,苏格兰皇家银行(Royal Bank of Scotland),于2007年申报的存款为1.3兆美元,是1500年全球总产值的五倍。参见 ‘Annual Report and Accounts 2008’, The Royal Bank of Scotland, 35, accessed December 10, 2010. http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/RBS/626570033x0x278481/eb7a003a-5c9b-41ef-bad3-81fb98a6c823/RBS_GRA_200809_03_09.pdf 74 Ferguson, Ascent of Money, 185-98. 75 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 31; Wrigley, English Population History, 295; Christian, Maps of Time, 450, 452; ‘World Health Statistic Report 2009’, 35-45, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010 http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf. 76 Wrigley, English Population History, 296. 77 ‘England, Interim Life Tables, 1980-82 to 2007-09’, Office for National Statistics, accessed March 22, 2012 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-61850 78 Michael Prestwich, Edward I (Berkley: University of California Press, 1988), 125-26. 79 Jennie B. Dorman et al., ‘The age-1 and daf-2 Genes Function in a Common Pathway to Control the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans’, Genetics 141:4 (1995), 1399-1406; Koen Houthoofd et al., ‘Life Extension via Dietary Restriction is Independent of the Ins/IGF-1 Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans’, Experimental Gerontology 38:9 (2003), 947-54. 80 Shawn M. Douglas, Ido Bachelet, and George M. Church, ‘A Logic-Gated Nanorobot for Targeted Transport of Molecular Payloads’, Science 335:6070 (2012): 831-4; Dan Peer et al., ‘Nanocarriers As An Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy’, Nature Nanotechnology 2 (2007): 751-60; Dan Peer et al., ‘Systemic Leukocyte-Directed siRNA Delivery Revealing Cyclin D1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Target’, Science 319:5863 (2008): 627-30. 81 Stephen R. Bown, Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Matin’s Press, 2004); Kenneth John Carpenter, The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). 82 James Cook, The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific, as Told by Selections of his Own Journals 1768-1779, ed. Archibald Grenfell Price (New York : Dover Publications, 1971), 16-17; Gananath Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 5; J.C. Beaglehole, ed., The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, vol. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 588. 83 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 81. 84 Christian, Maps of Time, 436. 85 John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire since 1405 (London: Allen Lane, 2007), 239. 86 Soli Shahvar, ‘Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia’, in the Online Edition of Encyclopaedia Iranica, last modified April 7, 2008, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/railroads-i; Charles Issawi, ‘The Iranian Economy 1925-1975: Fifty Years of Economic Development’, in Iran under the Pahlavis, ed. George Lenczowski (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 156. 87 Mark, The Origins of the Modern World, 46. 88 Kirkpatrik Sale, Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise (London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006), 7-13. 89 Edward M. Spiers, The Army and Society: 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980), 121; Robin Moore, ‘Imperial India, 1858-1914’, in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, ed. Andrew Porter (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 442. 90 Vinita Damodaran, ‘Famine in Bengal: A Comparison of the 1770 Famine in Bengal and the 1897 Famine in Chotanagpur’, The Medieval History Journal 10:1-2 (2007), 151. 91 Maddison, World Economy, vol. 1, 261, 264; ‘Gross National Income Per Capita 2009, Atlas Method and PPP’, The World Bank, accessed December 10, 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNIPC.pdf. 92 这里举的面包店例子在计算上经过简化,并非完全精确。因为银行金库中每存有1元就能贷出10元,如果银行现在有100万美元的存款,其实只能贷出约909000美元,而必须将91000美元留在金库里。但为了方便读者理解,我还是决定将数字简化。此外,银行也并不总是遵守这些法规。 93 Carl Trocki, Opium, Empire and the Global Political Economy (New York: Routledge, 1999), 91. 94 Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History (London: Zed Books, 2002), 22. 95 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 109. 96 Nathan S. Lewis and Daniel G. Nocera, ‘Powering the Planet: Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:43 (2006), 15731. 97 Kazuhisa Miyamoto (ed.), ‘Renewable Biological Systems for Alternative Sustainable Energy Production’, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 128 (Osaka: Osaka University, 1997), chapter 2.1.1, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.fao.org/docrep/W7241E/w7241e06.htm#2.1.1percent20solarperc ent20energy; James Barber, ‘Biological Solar Energy’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365:1853 (2007), 1007. 98 ‘International Energy Outlook 2010’, U.S. Energy Information Administration, 9, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484(2010).pdf. 99 S. Venetsky, ‘”Silver” from Clay’, Metallurgist 13:7 (1969), 451; Aftalion, Fred, A History of the International Chemical Industry (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 64; A. J. Downs, Chemistry of Aluminum, Gallium, Indium and Thallium (Glasgow: Blackie Academic & Professional, 1993), 15. 100 Jan Willem Erisman et al, ‘How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World’ in Nature Geoscience 1 (2008), 637. 101 G. J. Benson and B. E. Rollin (eds.), The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions (Ames, IA: Blackwell, 2004); M .C. Appleby, J. A. Mench, and B. O. Hughes, Poultry Behaviour and Welfare (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004); J. Webster, Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005); C. Druce and P. Lymbery, Outlawed in Europe: How America Is Falling Behind Europe in Farm Animal Welfare (New York: Archimedean Press, 2002). 102 Harry Harlow and Robert Zimmermann, ‘Affectional Responses in the Infant Monkey’, Science 130:3373 (1959), 421-432; Harry Harlow, ‘The Nature of Love’, American Psychologist 13 (1958), 673-685; Laurens D. Young et al., ‘Early stress and later response to seprate in rhesus monkeys’, American Journal of Psychiatry 130:4 (1973), 400-405; K. D. Broad, J. P. Curley and E. B. Keverne, ‘Mother-infant bonding and the evolution of mammalian social relationships’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Soceity B 361:1476 (2006), 2199-2214; Florent Pittet et al., ‘Effects of maternal experience on fearfulness and maternal behaviour in a precocial bird’, Animal Behavior (March 2013), In Press-available online at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347213000547) 103 “National Institute of Food and Agriculture”, United States Department of Agriculture, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.csrees.usda.gov/qlinks/extension.html. 104 Vaclav Smil, The Earth’s Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002); Sarah Catherine Walpole et al., ‘The Weight of Nations: An Estimation of Adult Human Biomass’, BMC Public Health 12:439 (2012), http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/439 105 William T. Jackman, The Development of Transportation in Modern England (London: Frank Cass & co., 1966), 324-27; H. J. Dyos and D.H. Aldcroft, British Transport-An economic survey from the seventeenth century to the twentieth (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969), 124-31; Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century (Berkeley: Univeristy of California Press, 1986). 106 关于过去这几十年前所未有的和平状态,特别可参见:Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein, Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York, N.Y.: Dutton, 2011); Gat, War in Human Civilization. 107 ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_annex_en.pdf. 之前时代的死亡率请参见: Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 108 ‘World Health Report, 2004’, World Health Organization, 124, accessed 10 December, 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/report04_en.pdf. 109 Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 21. See also Gat, War in Human Civilization, 129-31; Keeley, War before Civilization. 110 Manuel Eisner, ‘Modernization, Self-Control and Lethal Violence’, British Journal of Criminology 41:4 (2001), 618-638; Manuel Eisner, ‘Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 30 (2003), 83-142; ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_annex_en.pdf; ‘World Health Report, 2004’, World Health Organization, 124, accessed 10 December, 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/report04_en.pdf. 111 Walker and Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence,’ 30. 112 若想从心理和生化两种层面来讨论快乐,以下著作是很好的出发点:Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis:Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom (New York: Basic Books, 2006); R. Wright, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life (New York: Vintage Books, 1994); M. Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’, American Psychologist 54:10 (1999): 82127; F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis and B. Keverne, ed., The Science of Well-Being (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Happiness, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2001); Ed Diener (ed.), Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (New York: Springer, 2009); Michael Eid and Randy J. Larsen (eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (New York: Guilford Press, 2008); Richard A. Easterlin (ed.), Happiness in Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub., 2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (New York: Penguin, 2005). 113 Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011); Inglehart et al., “Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness,” 278-281. 114 D. M. McMahon, The Pursuit of Happiness: A History from the Greeks to the Present (London: Allen Lane, 2006). 115 Keith T. Paige et al., ‘De Novo Cartilage Generation Using Calcium Alginate-Chondrocyte Constructs’, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 97:1 (1996), 168-78. 116 David Biello, ‘Bacteria Transformed into Biofuels Refineries’, Scientific American, January 27, 2010, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bacteria-transformed-intobiofuel-refineries. 117 Gary Walsh, ‘Therapeutic Insulins and Their Large-Scale Manufacture’, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67:2 (2005), 151-59. 118 James G. Wallis et al., ‘Expression of a Synthetic Antifreeze Protein in Potato Reduces Electrolyte Release at Freezing Temperatures’, Plant Molecular Biology 35:3 (1997), 323-30. 119 Robert J. Wall et al., ‘Genetically Enhanced Cows Resist Intramammary Staphylococcus Aureus Infection’, Nature Biotechnology 23:4 (2005), 44551. 120 Liangxue Lai et al., ‘Generation of Cloned Transgenic Pigs Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids’, Nature Biotechnology 24:4 (2006), 435-36. 121 Ya-Ping Tang et al., ‘Genetic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Mice’, Nature 401 (1999), 63-69. 122 Zoe R. Donaldson and Larry J. Young, ‘Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Neurogenetics of Sociality’, Science 322:5903 (2008), 900–904; Zoe R. Donaldson, ‘Production of Germline Transgenic Prairie Voles (Microtus Ochrogaster) Using Lentiviral Vectors’, Biology of Reproduction 81:6 (2009), 1189-1195. 123 Terri Pous, ‘Siberian Discovery Could Bring Scientists Closer to Cloning Woolly Mammoth’, Time, September 17, 2012, accessed February 19, 2013; Pasqualino Loi et al, ‘Biological time machines: a realistic approach for cloning an extinct mammal’, Endangered Species Research 14 (2011), 227233; Leon Huynen, Craig D. Millar and David M. Lambert, ‘Resurrecting ancient animal genomes: The extinct moa and more’, Bioessays 34 (2012), 661-669. 124 Nicholas Wade, ‘Scientists in Germany Draft Neanderthal Genome’, New York Times, February 12, 2009, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/science/13neanderthal.html?_r=2&ref=s cience; Zack Zorich, ‘Should We Clone Neanderthals?’, Archaeology 63:2 (2009), accessed 10 December, 2010, http://www.archaeology.org/1003/etc/neanderthals.html. 125 Robert H. Waterston et al., ‘Initial Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Mouse Genome’, Nature 420:6915 (2002), 520. 126 ‘Hybrid Insect Micro Electromechanical Systems (HI-MEMS)’, Microsystems Technology Office, DARPA, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/Programs/Hybrid_Insect_Micro_Electromechanical_Systems percent28HI-MEMSpercent29.aspx. 并请参见:Sally Adee, ‘Nuclear-Powered Transponder for Cyborg Insect’, IEEE Spectrum, December 2009, accessed December 10, 2010, http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/devices/nuclearpoweredtransponder-for-cyborg- insect?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feedpercent3A+IeeeSpectrum+percent28IEEE+Spectrumpercent29&utm_content= Google+Reader; Jessica Marshall, ‘The Fly Who Bugged Me’, New Scientist 197:2646 (2008), 40-43; Emily Singer, ‘Send In the Rescue Rats’, New Scientist 183:2466 (2004), 21-22; Susan Brown, ‘Stealth Sharks to Patrol the High Seas’, New Scientist 189:2541 (2006), 30-31. 127 Bill Christensen, ‘Military Plans Cyborg Sharks’, Live Science, March 7, 2006, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.livescience.com/technology/060307_shark_implant.html. 128 ‘Cochlear Implants’, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/coch.aspx 129 Retina Implant, http://www.retinaimplant.de/en/doctors/technology/default.aspx. 130 David Brown, ‘For 1st Woman With Bionic Arm, a New Life Is Within Reach’, The Washington Post, September 14, 2006, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/09/13/AR2006091302271.html?nav=E8. 131 Miguel Nicolelis, Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains and Machines – and How It Will Change Our Lives (New York: Times Books, 2011). 132 Chris Berdik, ‘Turning Thought into Words’, BU Today, October 15, 2008, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.bu.edu/today/2008/turning-thoughtsinto-words/ 133 Jonathan Fildes, ‘Artificial Brain “10 years away”’, BBC News, July 22, 2009, accessed 19 September, 2012, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8164060.stm 134 Radoje Drmanac et al., ‘Human Genome Sequencing Using Unchained Base Reads on Self-Assembling DNA Nanoarrays’, Science 327:5961 (2010), 7881; ‘Complete Genomics’ website: http://www.completegenomics.com/; Rob Waters, ‘Complete Genomics Gets Gene Sequencing under 5000$ (Update 1)’, Bloomberg, November 5, 2009, accessed December 10, 2010; http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aWutnyE4So Ww; Fergus Walsh, ‘Era of Personalized Medicine Awaits’, BBC News, last updated April 8, 2009, accessed March 22, 2012, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7954968.stm; Leena Rao, ‘PayPal Co-Founder And Founders Fund Partner Joins DNA Sequencing Firm Halcyon Molecular’, TechCrunch, September 24, 2009, accessed December 10, 2010,

声明: 本文采用 BY-NC-SA 授权。转载请注明转自: Ding Bao Guo